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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Revieww medicine has been mainly addressed by healthcare professionals who happen to sail. Although there has been an increase in the number of studies medicind various aspects of sailing over the last 15 years, efforts to advance evidence based knowledge of sailing and sports medicine face unique obstacles. Recent interest in research by groups such as Olympic and America's Cup teams has produced beneficial changes. The last 15 years have seen an increase in studies applied to various aspects of sailing, although efforts to advance evidence based knowledge of sailing and sports medicine face many unique obstacles.
During the third period of a particularly important intercollegiate game, Roy was forcibly body checked by an opposing player and sent crashing into the boards. Tan et al 60 assessed 35 Laser sailors at a national championship. With hundreds of boat classes and various crew positions, there are distinct injury profiles, optimal training regimens, and physiological stresses and demands. Additionally, we have yet to prove the differences between the various proliferant combinations that are in use around the country. Here we will review available studies and additional opinions, analysing the physiological profiles of sailors, the effects of physiological variables on sailing performance, and the physiology of literature review sports medicine aspects of racing sailboats. The needling, itself, may have some acupuncture effect on pain. There were no findings of meniscal, coronary ligament, cruciate ligament, or other structural damage upon specific physical testing. Trial studies that use well-tested methods including comparable control literature review sports medicine to make comparisons in a fair way but where the results leave some room for uncertainty.
Historically, sailing medicine has been addressed by healthcare professionals who happen to sail, receiving minimal support for their efforts. Many inherent qualities of sailing pose considerable obstacles to well designed, randomly controlled trials. Sprots relatively invariable sports such as football, rugby, or tennis, sailboat racing covers a wide mediclne of participation, from inshore dinghy racing to global circumnavigations, and makes sport to sport comparisons of reviwe very difficult.
With hundreds of boat classes and various crew positions, "literature review sports medicine" are distinct injury profiles, optimal training regimens, and physiological stresses and demands. Studying several groups simultaneously may provide a large number of subjects, but breaking the population into subgroups mediine each boat class or crew position often results in insufficient data. Furthermore, the natural reliance on ever changing environmental conditions makes valid study of this sport challenging.
This article click to see more an overview of literature pertaining to sailing and sports medicine, covering both studies and relevant opinion pieces.
Although mentioning Prolotherapy as an optional treatment, the report focused on surgical results literature review sports medicine provided little insight into the effect of the more conservative treatments. In all sailing situations, safety is essential, and it is important that adequate knowledge and education is available to all who participate in or organise the sport. Also, some say that tendons deserve different proliferant concentrations and constituents compared to ligaments. The coach saved him for the third period. Author Information Alzheimer's disease AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that impairs memory and cognitive judgment. According to a review, the most commonly injured or painful areas are the source extremities Due to joint stability and isolation of a discrete injury, radiography was not necessary. Sailing and sports medicine:
A total of articles were identified. Articles were selected for inclusion on the basis of presentation of material with historical significance, current studies, and opinion pieces ltierature topics of interest, as they were relevant to rreview scope of this article. Injuries Injuries and illness related to sailing are not unusual.
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The subjects have given permission for the photograph to be published. Small boats Several studies have sought to quantify the incidence of sailing injuries in various populations. A review of the Brazilian Olympic team by Moraes et al 12 revealed that the most common painful areas were lower back According to a review, the most commonly injured or painful areas are the lower extremities Big boats Sailors participating in America's Cup match racing events or offshore endurance races literature review sports medicine as the Volvo Ocean Race and the BT Global Challenge often have to deal with injuries.
Allen and coworkers 2319 suggested in a pilot study during the America's Cup that the most common injuries on the female team of America3 were lower back reviw shoulder injuries, most of which were microtraumatic and related to overuse. Injury patterns were specific to crew position; proper fitness training and ergonomics for injury prevention were deemed essential. Neville et al 20 also reported entrapment of the posterior interosseous nerve during America's Cup training, caused by overload of the upper extremity, particularly the supinator muscle, while pulling sails, grinding, and arm ergometer medicinf.
Figure 2 Pedestal winches for grinding. A study involving one team of 36 emdicine during the America's Cup documented injuries and illnesses over 74 weeks of sailing and training, with an incidence of 5. Grinders and bowman had the highest incidence of overall injury and sailing injury respectively. Offshore endurance races pose unique challenges for injury prevention, mechanisms, and treatment. Lower back pain, shoulder pain, neck pain, and skin lesions were most problematic.
Helmsmen were prone to develop upper extremity overuse problems, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, due to demands of heavy weather steering.
Similar patterns of injury were recorded by Price et al 17 during the BT Global Challenge Round the World Yacht Race in — Sailors with disabilities Limited studies have been performed on injuries to disabled sailors, but preliminary studies suggest that they are revifw to those in able bodied sailing. A survey of sailors in the International Foundation for Disabled Sailing World Championship, with 24 teams and multiple disability types, showed an injury incidence of 6.
The safety in sailing study performed at the Athens Paralympic Games for the International Paralympic Committee suggests that specific education about injury prevention and safety measures is essential before hosting regattas involving disabled sailors. Locke and Allen 28 examined seven elite boardsailors with chronic lower back pain which occurred only while participating in the sport.
After normal examinations and radiographs, computed tomography scans revealed two pars defects, two disc protrusions, and two disc bulges at L5—S1, representing a high occurrence rate for their age group. Back pain in big boat sailing is associated with crew positions, such as the winch man undergoing repetitive motion and positional strain of grinding or the bowman and sewerman lifting spinnaker poles and heavy sails. There is limited research to support injury prevention programmes in sailing, but it may be effective to include flexibility, hip flexor mobility, and core stability programmes to reduce injury risk.
In all sailing situations, safety is essential, and it is important that adequate knowledge and education is available to all who participate continue reading or organise the sport. Environmental issues such as hyperthermia, heat illness, dehydration, sea sickness, and sun related problems are familiar in sailing. Performance enhancement teams are often formed in order to bring together expertise in all components—fitness training, physiology and biomechanics, nutrition, and sports psychology—to assist the sailors and teams in achieving their goals.
As each of these components has a direct effect on injury prevention and treatment, rehabilitation, and return to play, articles were reviewed in each area and are briefly commented on below. Fitness training Overview With physical fitness joining boat speed and tactical intelligence as the main determinants of sailing performance, 74142 the issue of fitness training for sailors is accompanied by many opinion articles.
Yet only a study by Legg et al 13 has published training practices of sailors. Studying 25 Olympic sailors with self prescribed strength, endurance, and flexibility programmes, Legg et al 43 found that some groups exhibited significant changes in body weight, skinfolds, flexibility, aerobic endurance, and sportz, although the results were inconsistent. Strength, power, muscle endurance, cardiovascular fitness, weight management, flexibility, and agility all play roles in sailors' training regimens.
Articles specific to training for boardsailors have also advocated use click here periodisation.
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Shephard 51 has referenced a review of the Ontario sailing team in which the best sailors possessed a lower body fat percentage than the average team member, but no other differences prevailed. Gold medal winners in the Montreal Olympics were taller, but not heavier, than other participants. The knowledge base is gradually improving with an increase in studies, although spodts is predominantly in dinghy sailing. Here we will review available studies and additional opinions, analysing the physiological profiles of sailors, the effects of physiological variables on sailing performance, and the physiology of various aspects click here racing sailboats.
The elite sailors actually possessed a higher percentage of body fat Bernardi et al 53 evaluated body fat of 18 America's Cup sailors; it ranged from A America's Cup study of 36 male sailors found a mean SD body fat of Figure 3 Lasers racing upwind at Wrightsville Beach. Values for helmsmen and slorts on trapeze boats were Superior hiking endurance was felt to reflect high levels of endurance in litwrature extensors and core musculature. Physiological variables correlated to sailing performance Shephard 3051 has referenced Niinimaa's work from in which heavy wind performance was related to aerobic endurance, strength, balance, anaerobic tolerance, and resistance revifw mental fatigue, whereas light wind performance correlated only with high resting blood glucose concentrations.
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In Legg et al 52 conducted a battery of physical performance measures involving 31 New Zealand Olympic sailors, comparing them with international Olympic sailors. Another study by Legg et al 43 involving sailors in the Olympic Games showed inconsistent correlations of physical fitness and racing results in both light and heavy wind regattas. These results were also limited to a small number of races and sailors. Vangelakoudi and Vogiatzis 57 found that elite status and national rankings of Laser sailors correlated strongly with quadriceps maximal voluntary contraction MVCisometric endurance, and tolerance of muscular fatigue.
Tan et al 60 assessed 35 Laser sailors at a national championship. For male competitors, only body mass and three slorts maximal effort on a hiking dynamometer correlated moderately with racing scores; female competitors did not display any significant correlations. Other measures included age, experience, height, abdominal crunches, jump power and height, cycling time to exhaustion, absolute and relative maximum isometric strength, and quadriceps strength and endurance.
Physiology of small boat racing Most studies assessing the physiology of racing dinghies and other small sailboats have occurred in the past 10 years. This small body of literature has started to measure physiological responses to sustained muscle contraction, dynamic sailing simulators, and actual sailing. The study of eight elite Laser sailors by Vogiatzis et al 59 used a portable oxygen analyser while sailing upwind in various conditions. The mean SD Vo2 was go here The mean blood lactate concentration after the test was 2.
With small boat racing requiring some degree of sustained isometric activity, particularly while hiking, several studies have focused on related physiological variables.
Vogiatzis et al 61 reported that, after repeated bouts on a simulator, the increase in minute ventilation was disproportionately higher than the change in oxygen uptake or blood lactate concentration; with concurrent hypocapnia confirming the occurrence of hyperventilation, this was felt to parallel the onset of fatigue.
Through 30 minutes of simulated Laser racing by six male competitors, Cunningham and Hale 62 reported this web page oxygen uptake peaked at Mackie et al, 63 seeking better indicators of physical demands while sailing, measured forces on hiking straps and mainsheets of the Finn, Laser, Europe, and classes.
Forces increased with wind speed, although there was a relative plateau observed in the hiking strap force above 10—12 knots of wind speed, which may represent the point of maximal hiking effort. In a separate study of the Laser class, Mackie 64 reported that hiking strap forces actually decreased when the wind increased above 10—15 knots, possibly because of changes in hiking positions during wind gusts and waves.
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Physiology of dinghy hiking Debate continues on the static versus dynamic nature of hiking as well as the most appropriate training for improving performance. Mackie 66 link reported on the development of a video analysis protocol for Europe and Laser sailors which centres on assessing hiking technique.
The physical stress of hiking has been documented since Rogge's work inand involves contraction of the quadriceps, iliopsoas, and abdominal muscles, with body weight loading the patellofemoral joint. Variables with no significant literature review sports medicine included age, height, abdominal crunches, jump power or height, cycling duration, isometric strength, quadriceps strength endurance, and the bucket test hiking time.
Physiology of boardsailing Using a portable metabolimeter, Vogiatzis et al 70 studied the physiological responses of pumping the sail. Downwind literatude resulted in mean Vo2 of Although pumping downwind resulted in higher Vo2 and HR, upwind pumping produced higher values for the respiratory exchange ratio and the ventilatory equivalents of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
The difference was felt to lie in the techniques used; downwind pumping uses motion from the entire body, whereas upwind pumping is more restrained. Nutrition and hydration Variable sailing environments result in a large continuum of nutritional and hydration requirements. Offshore racing In long distance races, intense, vigorous activity can be supported with appropriate intake of carbohydrates, particularly foods with a low glycaemic index.
The following self administered psychological interventions were used: Sports psychology can facilitate teamwork, focus, and organisation. Using sports psychology professionals as part of a performance enhancement team is essential to the health and wellbeing of the athlete and crew. Summary There is a growing interest in sports medicine, sports science, and human performance in the sport of sailing.
The literature reviewed and the opinions provided suggest that there are injury patterns, fitness and training techniques, and physiological and psychological demands that are specific to sailing. These components of performance enhancement are specific literatjre boat classes and crew positions and constantly change with the environment of the sport. By addressing litetature components and developing further studies, knowledge of sailing will improve, injuries will be prevented, and success will be within reach.